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Exploring Korean business, language and life from Ansan, Korea

Korean Outlining and Corresponding English Translations

The following shows the Korean numbering in the outlining of Korean laws, along with the corresponding English outlining in the official translations of the laws produced by the Korea Legislation Research Institute.

가. = (a)

나. = (b)

다. = (c)

라. = (d)

마. = (e)

바. = (f)

사. = (g)

아. = (h)

자. = (i)

차. = (j)

카. = (k)

타. = (l)

파. = (m)

하. = (n)

거. = (o)

너. = (p)

더 = (q)

러. = (r)

머. = (s)

버. = (t)

서. = (u)

어. = (v)

저. = (w)

처. = (x)

커. = (y)

터. = (z)

퍼. = (aa)

허. = (ab)

고. = (ac)

노. = (ad)

도. = (ae)

로. = (af)

모. = (ag)

보. = (ah)

소. = (ai)

오. = (aj)

조. = (ak)

초. = (al)

코. = (am)

토. = (an)

포. = (ao)

호. = (ap)

구. = (aq)

누. = (ar)

두. = (as)

루. = (at)

무. = (au)

부. = (av)

수. = (aw)

우. = (ax)

주. = (ay)

추. = (az)

쿠. = (ba)

Netflix mispelled in Korean 60 different ways

I recently translated Korean survey responses about online streaming services. Netflix was mentioned many times, usually written in Korean. The correct Korean spelling of Netflix is 넷플릭스. Including typos, I found it mispelled the following 60 different ways.

넷 플릭스
넥플 릭스
넷 플랙스
넷플 렉스

Nine more ways

넷 플릭 스
넷플 랙

Eight more ways


Outstanding PhD Dissertation Award

Outstanding PhD Dissertation Award

Strategic Management Department

Steven Bammel

Title of dissertation: Analysis of self-employment weakness in the Korean service sector using the concept of self-employment congestion

The abovenamed person is hereby granted this award, having been selected as a winner of the Outstanding PhD Dissertation Award (2nd Semester, 2020 Academic Year) of the Graduate School of Hanyang University.

February 19, 2021

Sukjoo Bae, PhD., Dean of the Graduate School of Hanyang University

Woo Seung Kim, PhD, President of Hanyang University

Korean Translation Tips

Completion Certificate for Course on Research Ethics for University Researchers

I was just awarded this certificate for completing an online course on ethics in research by the Korea Institute of Resource Development (or something like that. The actual name of the institute is 국가과학기술인력개발원 but the only English they provide for this is the acronym "KIRD").

Not a big deal but I was proud to finish with a 90% on the final exam on my first attempt since the course and exam were all in Korean. I'd figured I'd need to go through everything twice, but I guess not!


Examples of Translation Jobs Handled

My team and I have handled more than 15,000 discrete translation projects over the years; the following are a few examples of the types of work we handle, many on a very regular basis. Due to confidentiality commitments, I have not included any customer-identifiable information in the lists below.

Jobs I’ve Translated from Korean to English

  • Countless Korean family documents, including family census registers (호적등본, aka “Korean birth certificate”) and the new certificate format (basic certificate, family relationship certificate, marriage relationship certificate)
  • Personal letters
  • Business emails (especially for litigation cases)
  • Korean medical records and receipts, including for medical insurance claims
  • Business receipts in Korea, including for business reimbursements
  • Korean bank statements
  • Korean online game dialogue
  • Korean financial statements, notes to the financial statements and auditor opinions
  • Korean legal documents, such as Korean lease agreements, business agreements, intellectual property protection agreements and others, as well as legal complaints
  • Clinical trial translations (mainly back-translations of clinical trial consent forms and other related documentation to be used in clinical trials in Korea)
  • Many Korean newspaper articles
  • Korean-language survey responses, including those filled out in response to surveys of Korean employees and customers of multinational corporations, physicians involved in medical research, and others
  • Marketing materials for Korean companies targeting non-Korean buyers and investors
  • Academic articles and dissertations
  • Academic and professional degrees and certifications
  • Product ingredient lists
  • Korean patents of all types
  • Transcripts of Korean videos
  • Korean legislation and other legal regulations
  • Back-translations of marketing materials first translated into Korean
  • Insurance adjuster reports
  • Korean RFQ and RFP materials
  • Korean-language whistleblower reports
  • Business case studies

Jobs My Team Has Handled from English to Korean

  • Website content for Korean visitors
  • Advertisements to Korean customers, especially to Korean-Americans
  • Clinical trial documents
  • Users manuals of all types which require a Korean version
  • GUI content for computer software, including mobile apps
  • Machinery warning labels
  • Zillions of business cards
  • Surveys of Korean consumers, site visitors, employees and others
  • Government literature for Korean-American readers, including public service announcements, information about available services, and others
  • Messages to students and parents of students studying in the US and other countries
  • Health insurance-related materials for Korean buyers
  • Marketing videos, including captions and voice-over content
  • Proposals of Western suppoers to Korean companies
  • Business correspondence between Western and Korean companies
  • Patents of all types, including chemical patents, software patents, mechanical patents and others
  • Religious materials
  • Documents and online resources to facilitate ethics reporting violations within multinational companies
  • Corporate newsletters
  • Reports and announcements by national and multinational para-governmental organizations

The List of 50


  1. Myunghee
  2. Treasure
  3. Cauvery
  4. Mom
  5. Dad
  6. Jinho Park
  7. Hyun

Academics & Learning

  1. D. Bannon
  2. Prof. Seo
  3. Frithjof Arp

Language Services

  1. DH Kim
  2. Xiang
  3. Joseph
  4. Toshihiko

Other Services

  1. Catalin
  2. Richard Roy
  3. Bohdan

General Business Network

  1. Jake Kim
  2. Mike Park
  3. Steve McKinney
  4. Prof. Sangman Lee
  5. Michael Lee
  6. Peter Underwood


  1. Dom LaVigne

Considered But Left Off

  • Siblings
  • Hongil Kim
  • Girish
  • Stephane Mot
  • Josiah Hunt
  • Sol Kim
  • Eun-Shil Park
  • Dave Woods
  • Troy Ottwell
  • Carl Kwan
  • SG Lee
  • Sean Hayes
  • Emanuel Pastriech
  • Dewey

Contact Me for Help with Your Korean Language and Business Needs


I’ve been involved with Korea and Korean business for many years, and am proud that thousands of people and companies around the world have found the Korean business information in my online and offline resources helpful for furthering their careers and results in Korea.

Because of this, I get a steady stream of inquiries requesting support of all kinds. The purpose of this page is to outline the ways I can and will help, and to share insights about how to get the answers you need.

Korean Translation Services

I offer the very best Korean translation support in business fields, including management, economics, finance, HR, marketing and accounting. By working with me, you not only benefit from the translation expertise I’ve gained from over 20 years in the field, but also business and cultural insights about Korea and Korean business. You can download my resume here for full details about my background.

Please email me directly about Korean translation services at [email protected].

General Advice and Questions about Korea and Korean Business

If you reached this page because you read a weblog post or other online commentary I provided and you have a related question, please go back to that post or discussion and ask your question there. (Make sure your question is related to the post or discussion!) I don’t generally answer random emailed questions that come from strangers, but I do enjoy engaging in discussions on this blog or elsewhere online where I’ve been active.

I am also not interested in “business opportunities” in Korea or elsewhere (especially multi-level marketing opportunities) and am focused only on fee-for-service based translation and consulting work.

About Steven (Certified Technical Korean to English Translator)


Starting Out in Korea

A graduate of the University of Texas at Arlington (College of Business Administration), Steven S. Bammel came to Korea in the mid-1990s, working in Seoul for nearly five years within the LG Group of South Korea. During that time, he learned about Korean business practices from the inside as a member of the team handling international trade support work for LG International Corporation.

By the end of the 1990s, Steven had successfully promoted overseas business for several Korean companies and edited/translated hundreds of documents.

Building a Korea-Focused Translation and Consulting Practice

IMG_5330Based on this foundation, Steven returned to the US in 1999, and then founded Korean Consulting & Translation Service, Inc. in mid-2000. During the first several years of building the company, Steven, his wife Myunghee and two children Treasure and Cauvery, shared their time between Irving, Texas and the company’s corporate apartment in Ansan, near Seoul, Korea.

Thanks to a perfectionist mindset and deep understanding of the requirements of translation clients, not to mention high-level Korean skills, Steven and his team have successfully handled more than ten thousand projects both large and small over the years, mainly for US-based companies and agencies, but also for individuals and corporate clients around the world, many of whom have provided testimonials and given permission to publish them.

Steven is one of the only non-heritage Korean speakers to achieve a top ranking on the Translation Competence Test of the Korean Society of Translators and is also certified at the highest level for SDL Trados and memoQ translator pro, the leading software used by translation professionals. He’s been a member of the American Translators Association since 2000.

Steven has served as a GyeongGi Province Foreign Direct Investment Advisor, as well as a consultant to the GyeongGi Association of Foreign-Invested Companies.

In-Depth Research into Korea and Korean Business

P1070684 In early 2008, the Bammels returned to Korea indefinitely so that Steven could study at the Graduate School of Business Administration of Hanyang University to further develop his unique Korean business perspective and to improve his language skills in an immersive Korean language environment.

Having written his thesis in Korean (“서비스 정의의 비판적 검토를 통한 서비스 혁신에 대한 혼돈의 해소: 과정-참여 모형의 소개”), Steven was awarded a Masters in Science with a major in Management Strategy from Hanyang University in February 2011.

Steven is still a ceaseless student of Korea and the Korean language in spite of already having been recognized at the highest level on the Test of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK).

P1030633In September 2012, Steven started back at Hanyang University as a doctoral student, still focused on management strategy, and he is working to earn his Ph.D. by 2017.

An Accessible Expert Resource With Informed, Fresh and Nuanced Perspectives on Korea and Korean Business

Steven is the creator of Korea Business Central, a unique online space with free and paid resources for members to deepen their general knowlege, improve credentials and discuss with Steven and others about business and non-business (but always Korea-related) topics. The community’s Facebook page is called Korea Business Network.

P1060451Steven is director and developer of the KBC Professional Certification Program, a unique and affordable online educational resource within the paid resources on Korea Business Central that gives students the expertise, support and credibility to reach their goals in Korean business. The program currently offers a specialization in Korean Business Culture Fundamentals, with more planned for the future. (Testimonials about the program.)

In addition to being author of this Korean business weblog, Nojeok Hill: My View from the Top, Steven has developed a variety of practical Korean business resources, including the Korea Business Adviser column for Seoul Magazine, some of which are listed on his Amazon Author Page.

The above are only some of the online presences that Steven maintains. Others include Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, Google+ and Facebook.6a011279704a5b28a4017ee527836a970d-800wi

Steven’s achievements, roles and opinions have been covered in the media, both online and offline, His work is also the subject of dozens of testimonials on his LinkedIin profile.

Finally, since first arriving in Korea nearly twenty years ago, Steven has only called one city home there and he tirelessly promotes Ansan through the perspectives here at Nojeok Hill and in the Seongpo-Dong Photoblog, which includes a variety of travel collections from around Korea, as well as the Chirisan Doollae-Gil, his main current destination for outdoor recreation.

Click here for Steven’s online resume.