work in a company Feed

How Do You Write "Director" in Korean?

------

** Visit the related discussion on Korea Business Central: "How Should I Translate My Director Job Title to Korean?"

------

Having translated hundreds and hundreds of business cards into Korean over the years, my team and I have come across our share of tricky job titles.

A leading candidate for most-difficult-to-translate title is "director". The main reason for this is that, in the West, we use the English job title "director" for various positions that each have their own unique terms in Korean, and some of those jobs don't correspond exactly with specific positions found outside Korea.

The discussion below illustrates why context means everything in translation and in the interpretation of those translations. It's also an interesting study in just how different two languages can be and why a simple translation question does not always have a simple answer.

이사

The most straightforward translation of "director" is 이사. When "director" is mistranslated, this is the term most commonly used. But 이사 has a pretty narrow meaning that signifies a certain position within a traditional corporate hierarchy or a place on the board of directors.

In a company structure where the director is above a manager and general manager but is also lower than a vice-president and president, 이사 is a good translation for "director". However, keep in mind that within this corporate hierarchy and still below the level of vice-president and president, "executive director", "managing director" or even "senior managing director" would be translated to 전무, 전무이사 and 상무이사, respectively. 

이사 also works for a member of the board of directors (이사회). But if emphasizing that someone is a member of the board of directors, a more complete translation is 이사회 위원. With this logic, the "chairman of the board" would be 이사회 위원장 or just 이사회장, but this translation applies to a Western conception of a board of directors. In a Korean corporation, the head of the company, usually the president (사장), serves also as chairman of the board, and this person's title as chairman of the board is properly translated to 대표이사 in Korean and translated back to English as "representative director". Thus, translating "chairman of the board of directors [in a Western company]" to Korean as 대표이사 indicates a role which does not a match the role and responsibilities of that position in a Korean context; in this case, it would be better to stick with 이사회 위원장.

** For more information on Korean company hierarchy, refer to my executive report: "Succeed in Korean Business by Understanding Company Hierarchy".

장 or 총장

When translating "director" to Korean for a job position outside of a traditional corporate hierarchy but which has responsibility for directing an organization, it is usually necessary to pick from a variety of alternatives that end in 장. The meaning of 장 can be inferred from the way Koreans often translate these positions back to English using the word "chief" or "head" of such-and-such organization.

The director of a study institute (학원) would be 원장. The director of a medical clinic or hospital (병원) would also be 원장 (and frequently refers just to the doctor, if a small clinic). The director of a committee (위원회) is 회장, which is also the word used for the chairman of a group of companies (such as the guy who runs the Samsung empire) OR the person charged with leading a small group of people who meet on a regular basis for various purposes OR even sometimes, the kid picked to be class president at school.

The director of an office of some sort (say, a quasi-governmental office in charge of attracting foreign investment) would be 실장, 소장, 센터장, 협회장, 부장 or 국장, depending on the characteristics of the respective organization. These Korean titles roughly correspond to whether we'd call the place an office (실), a center (센터), a committee/commission (위원회), an association (협회), a department (부) or an agency (국). Note that the director of a research institute (연구소) would also be 소장; in addition to its role here, 부장 is also a specific position in the traditional corporate hierarchy directly below director and best translated as "general manager"; and the director of a larger government office at the level of 청 should be translated as 청장.

Another variation arises in this context when "executive director" is used in English rather than just "director" even though both titles would be suitable to describe the holder of the title as being in charge of an organization. In this case, "executive director" is a bit grander of a title and to communicate this same nuance in Korean, 장 could become 총장. For example, the director positions of international organizations such as the World Bank are generally translated as 총장 (as is the chancellor of a university). In fact, 총장 comes in various additional flavors, including 사무총장 (secretary general, but really no different than executive director), 사무국장 (secretary-general or director), 참모총장 (chief of staff) or attorney general (검찰총장).

I should point out that adding 장 to the end of a Korean job title does not mean it always corresponds to an English job title with the word "director" in it. We've got quite a few positions in English that could be akin to director but have their own specific terms: dean of a university (총장), principal of a school (교장), class president (회장 or 반장), president of a company (사장), police chief (경찰서장), mayor (시장), county commissioner (군장) and many others, such as the multiple non-director job positions in the traditional corporate hierarchy (manager (과장), deputy general manager (차장) and general manager (부장)).

감독

The term 감독 is used primarily in the arts for job titles like music director (음악 감독), art director (미술 감독) or movie director (영화 감독). However, it is just as common here to use the Korean transliterations of the English words, as in 뮤직 디렉터, 아트 디렉터 or 무비 디렉터. 

In a business context, a project director could be translated to 프로젝트 감독 or 프로젝트 디렉터.

Others

A choir director would be best translated as 지휘자. This is the same word used for an orchestra conductor, and though we have separate terms in English, the roles are similar and Korean doesn't distinguish.

The term 중역 literally means "heavy role" or a person performing an important role. It's used sometimes when talking about the top executives in a company, and this can occasionally be a suitable term for director, including a member of the board of directors.

One more "director" title that deserves special mention is "program director", as in the person who puts TV shows together. This job title is universally used in Korea as "PD" (i.e. the English letters P and D).

The dictionary lists "심의관" as both "Director-General" and "Deputy Director-General" in the context of a court or patent review office. I guess the "Deputy" part depends on context. 

Finally, if all else fails, just transliterating the word "director" to Korean as 디렉터 is a quick-and-dirty translation that is never outright "wrong", though it wouldn't be as right as picking the right term from the discussion above. 

* If you need help translating job titles for business cards within your organization, I'm here to help. Not only can you download my "Definitive Guide to Korean Business Cards", but my team and I also provide premium end-to-end translation and layout of English business cards to Korean. Check out the information here about these professional services.

------

** Visit the related discussion on Korea Business Central: "How Should I Translate My Director Job Title to Korean?"

------


Reflections on the Benefits of Learning Korean to One's Career in Korea

** Visit the related discussion on Korea Business Central.

Learning Korean is tough; there are no two ways about it. When I first came to Korea, I planned to conquer Korean in two years and then do the same with Chinese and Japanese after that. I figured that would make me something special. However, it didn't take me long to realize that Korean was the only language of the three in which I'd manage to achieve proficiency, and that improving those skills would be a lifelong project. 

I've met other Westerners who have started along this journey but gotten discouraged. Here's a typical question and my answer to it.

Q: Will Korean skills boost my career opportunities in Korea?

A: I would like to say that the answer is a definite "yes"; however, as with many aspects of life in Korea, the answer is nuanced.

It can be a discouraging reality to accept, but your Korean abilities are not going to fast-track you in your career in Korea. In fact, though Korean skills may work in your favor if competing against someone for a job who doesn't know Korean, it is unlikely your Korean will be a crucial factor in the hiring process, no matter what job you apply for.

In general, if you're from an English-speaking country, you'll likely find your best job opportunities in positions that take advantage of your English abilities, and once that happens, your Korean is no longer an asset; in some cases, it's a disadvantage if your prospective employer is concerned you’ll be more focused on learning Korean than on helping your coworkers and/or students improve their English. Your employer is more likely to appreciate your Korean abilities if they didn't hire you for your English, but your Korean still won't be a key factor in the hiring process.

Way back when I taught English, I remember trying to inject Korean into my classes. Students (understandably) hated that. Later, when working in the LG Group as an editor/writer (and later, off-and-on translator), I was given strict instructions NOT to speak Korean in the office. I recall trying to refer an American friend to a position that had opened up in the company and when I mentioned to the director that my friend was fluent in Korean, he flat out told me nobody cared about that. Even now in my Ph.D. studies at Hanyang University, the semi-frequent job offers I get from the university to teach always involve helping the university fulfill the government-mandated requirement for classes taught in English and I often sense disappointment that I'm so focused on doing my coursework in Korean.

Having said that, I can think of some situations where your Korean skills could be helpful. The first would be where you have been hired for your English skills but where your Korean abilities let you understand and participate in office communications. This may make your more effective and fulfilled in your job. But as a foreigner, you won’t be on a career path to which you can apply this effectiveness and so the main benefit is likely to be found in helping you avoid some of the feelings of isolation that you'd encounter otherwise. But plenty of non-Koreans without Korean skills have managed their way through those situations, so it's not absolutely necessary.

You may also find that your Korean skills let you discover roles that wouldn't otherwise have existed. Your ability to leverage these roles would then be the determining factor in where you go from there. For example, being good at Korean can generate a lot of curiosity and if managed strategically may lead to hidden opportunities. I’ve encountered a few of those, such as being appointed Foreign-Investment Advisor to Gyeonggi Province when the Governor was impressed with my Korean. But networking opportunities are not the same as a career path. Besides, English skills are also a point of curiosity with Koreans and this can open doors, too. Thus, being stubborn in using Korean can close some of those English-oriented doors of opportunity, as well.

One more observation.... Even though speaking Korean is not going to make your career, the longer you spend in Korea without learning the language to a certain degree of proficiency, the more of a drag it may be on you, both personally and professionally. One reason is that Koreans may question your commitment to the country and your diligence if you never move beyond English interactions, and this can affect professional perceptions, too. Thus, speaking Korean may not help much, but not speaking Korean may also not be so great. Eventually, those who don’t learn Korean (and many who do!) end up “moving on” and not sticking around.

Speaking Korean often feels like a “brownie point” earner more than a killer resume skill. It’s a career asset if used strategically, but even that's not easy. And social pressure in Korea can provide a compelling excuse NOT to learn Korean.

I would say that if career opportunities are your primary motivation to learn Korean, then it’s not worth the trouble. The Korean learning process must have deeper value for you in personal ways -- such as the satisfaction you get from communicating in a difficult language and cultural context -- and that requires a special love for Korea.

When Koreans learn English, they can travel the world and meet people from many countries; when we learn Korean, we can... well, we can travel around Korea and meet Koreans. Ultimately, learning Korean is a niche endeavor that narrows (but deepens) your options. 

** Visit the related discussion on Korea Business Central.


Thrive in a Korean Company: "How can Korea Business Central can help me, as a non-Korean, thrive in a Korean company?"

The following was extracted from a recent interview with me about how to thrive in a Korean company. 


Button_thrivein

"How can Korea Business Central can help me, as a non-Korean, thrive in a Korean company?"

"We have loads of resources on Korea Business Central to help you succeed working for a Korean company. I’ve already mentioned the case-study interviews we’ve done with non-Korean professionals and executives who have worked in Korean companies. I’ve also mentioned the opportunity to connect with peer in other Korean work environments.

We’ve got member discussions about a wide range of Korean business-related topics, including employment in a Korean company. You can seek out advice about your specific questions from experts, and if you’re in Korea, Korea Business Central has hosted business networking events and we have information about upcoming opportunities with many other organizations too, too, including some that are online and available from afar.

Furthermore, as an understanding of Korean business culture is a key factor in your success in a Korean business position, KBC has both free and premium resources to equip you for that success. In fact, our KBC Professional Certification Program allows you to learn and become independently certified in the fundamentals of Korean business culture, which is a great way to prepare for your new position."

Visit Korea Business Central for more information on working in a Korean company, including the full video of this interview.


Mainbanner

Learn more about the KBC Professional Certification Program to be more successful in your career in Korea.


What's Wrong with Teaching English in Korea?

A KBC member sent me the following question last week:

Hello Steven,

Thank you for this website.  It's an extremely valuable, interactive and informative place for people like me looking for work in Korea.

I'm 38 Korean American who came to the States when I was 14 (back in 1988).  I served in the U.S. military for 4 years, completed my undergrad in business administration and have been in IT support positions for past 12 years, but mainly in desktop support, network operation center and currently helpdesk.  Not exactly the most sought-after IT positions even in the States these days.  

Based on my limited research, reading many discussions and contents on your site and along with visiting many expat blogs, I'm beginning to appreciate how tight the job market is in Korea and how difficult it can be to achieve and maintain a decent standard of living on a salary man's earning.........let alone save enough to buy home (which does not seem to be possible for most).

I've checked out a few job sites such as Indeed, Myjobs.kr and other online job boards.  I got one call back after responding to a tech support job and was told that I'm too old (in a nice way).

My reason for wanting to work in Korea is a personal one:  I met someone.  She lives and works in Seoul.  
My Korean is fluent (even though my writing and typing skill sets are rusty).  

You've been in Korea longer than me.  In your own experience and exposure to fellow expat as well as Korean Americans in ESL industry, do I have a decent chance to find a work teaching English considering my age?

I read one of the forum where [one member] talks about being careful with switching career field just for the sake of finding work in Korea.  It hit home and yet I'm seriously considering doing just that.

My head tells me that I'm about to make a huge career suicide, but honestly, I won't miss leaving my current field.  Coming to Korea isn't about making money or career.  And I doubt that I'll look for long-term work beyond a year at most.  Then again, I have no idea where I will be in another year.  I never thought I would think about working in Korea at the beginning of this year.  

My apology for long email, but I wanted to hear from someone who's been there and done that for over 20 years in Korea.  Please feel free to be as brutal and direct as you need to be.

[KBC member]

The crux of this member's question is whether teaching English in Korea can be a valid stepping stone to other opportunities in Korea. Here's what I replied:

[KBC member] - Thanks for the note.

In the case of the member referenced in your email, he already had a career track, so coming to Korea to teach English would not have moved him forward; it would have put serious question marks on his commitment to his field. But as you mentioned, you aren't particularly attached to your current occupation and so you've got less to lose.

Sure, an English teaching position isn't exactly prestigious, but it is easy to get and will pay the bills. And so if you really want to come to Korea and you haven't found a better option, then why not? 

Good luck!

Steven


Thrive in a Korean Company: "What are a few very important things I must do to get on the fast track for advancement in a Korean company?"

The following was extracted from a recent interview with me about how to thrive in a Korean company. 


Button_thrivein

"What are a few very important things I must do to get on the fast track for advancement in a Korean company?"

"The first thing is to be realistic.

"Korean companies don’t hire foreigners for high-level positions except in very rare cases, a few of which we’ve featured on Korea Business Central. If you’re working for an overseas office of a Korean company, you may advance several ranks up, but in most cases, Korean companies dispatch employees from head office to man the highest positions.

The career track and job terms for Korean employees are completely different from those for non-Koreans. If you’re working in Korea as a foreign employee, you’re probably there on a contract basis, meaning that there’s no advancement implied in your position and you continue in the position only as long as your contract is renewed.

The important thing to remember here is that the experiences and connections you gain during your employment in a Korean company like this can be extremely valuable for you after moving on in your career, and especially when you’re ready to move to a non-Korean or multinational company that does business in Korea."

Visit Korea Business Central for more information on working in a Korean company, including the full video of this interview.

 

Mainbanner

Learn more about the KBC Professional Certification Program to be more successful in your career in Korea.


Thrive in a Korean Company: "Every company in every culture has office politics. Tell me what's unique about office politics in Korean companies."

The following was extracted from a recent interview with me about how to thrive in a Korean company. 


Button_thrivein

"Every company in every culture has office politics. Tell me what's unique about office politics in Korean companies."

"Because of the top-down orientation of Korean companies, your boss will often be constrained in the ways he can guide you in your work. You often won’t be aware of what’s going on here and Korean organizations are not known for their clear and well-explained communications with non-Korean employees.

This is true whether you’re working for a Korean company overseas or in Korea and the problems are compounded by language and culture.

Try hard to leverage your understanding of Korean business culture to connect with those around you -- particularly, those at a higher level -- and discuss your frustrations and challenges with those that you build trusting relationships with. You’ll find that Koreans overseas are often homesick and they will appreciate and respect your efforts to do business and communicate with them in their way.

I remember that when I first started working at my position in the LG Group many years ago, I experienced a great deal of uncertainty about how my role was being perceived. It was only after I established a friendship with a general manager in a different department than mine that I was able to make sense of things that had bothered me before and gain a new sense of stability that ended up lasting for nearly five years."

Visit Korea Business Central for more information on working in a Korean company, including the full video of this interview.

 

Mainbanner

Learn more about the KBC Professional Certification Program to be more successful in your career in Korea.


The Korea Herald Quotes Steven Bammel in "Opaque, top-down system leaves some expats bitter"

I was quoted in the following article from the Korea Herald on October 29, 2012.

Opaque, top-down system leaves some expats bitter

Expert says problems more common at SMEs without HR departments

Last year saw the total number of foreign workers in Korea surpass 700,000 for the first time, a consequence of an ever-rising demand for foreign labor. 

For many, Korea offers the chance to earn a living and acquire new skills in an exciting new environment. For others, however, thriving in a work culture often vastly different from their own is a constant struggle.

One skilled worker from India found the rigid, hierarchal company culture at his workplace, one of the country’s biggest semiconductor makers, extremely difficult to deal with.

“It is very top-to-bottom-driven. You are supposed to be the ‘yes man.’ Especially if they (colleagues) are higher up in the rank, you cannot argue with them. If you argue with them, you are considered to be very rude or very inconsiderate,” said the former employee of six years who spoke on condition of anonymity. 

The top-down culture at the chaebol affiliate, described by the former employee as “dictatorial,” asserted itself when he went to make a complaint against his manager for demanding a share of extra earnings the employee had earned for in-company training. Rather than being approached from a neutral standpoint, his complaint was treated with bias by the human resources staffer responsible, he said.

“Instead of being a neutral body, she actually started taking sides with that local person and she actually tried to put me in a bad spot and made it look like I was making up something,” said the former employee.

Frustrated at the handling of his complaint and denied a meeting with his CEO, he attempted to contact the company head directly. But after sending his CEO an email, he found himself called into a meeting of senior human resources staff. 

“That HR person explained very politely that I made a mistake as an expat to write an email directly to the CEO of the company. He said that this is not Korean culture … and that I should be extremely careful with my actions.”

In an email seen by The Korea Herald, an HR staffer at the company told the employee that legal action would be taken unless he stopped calling and emailing about “unreasonable matters.” The email referred to correspondence by the employee on two different dates about his grievances with the company. 

He ran into further problems, he said, when he later began the process of leaving the company after six years there. His boss demanded to know what company he was going to work at before he would cooperate with arranging the paperwork for him to leave. 

Contrary to the former chaebol worker’s experiences, however, Yi Seong-ok of Seoul Global Center said that the majority of problems foreign workers encounter are at small and medium-sized companies.

“The big companies take care of their own issues; also, there are experts to support employees,” said Yi, adding that non-payment of wages and industrial accidents were the most common issues brought to her attention. 

“But at small and medium-sized companies there are no small special programs for employees and no special experts that can help employees.” 

Yi added that many conflicts between employers and foreign employees are primarily failures of communication. 

“In arguments between employers and employees, the bottom line is they cannot communicate. That’s the reason for (many) arguments between employers and employees.” 

Steven Bammel, the creator of Korea Business Central, an information resource and support service for foreigners doing business here, said that non-payment of wages was the most common issue that he came across.

“The most common issue is probably non-payment of wages by institutes to their teachers,” said Bammel. “It’s probably not a frequent occurrence, but it does happen and I get contacted from time to time by folks needing interpreting or translation for such issues.”

Familiarization with the culture, however, goes a long way toward a smooth work life, he added.

“Foreigners who want to work or are working in a Korean workplace must understand Korean business culture and without that background, they are sure to cause offense, look silly and get frustrated,” said Bammel. 

By John Power (john.power@heraldcorp.com)

Link to original article.


Thrive in a Korean Company: "So, it's my first day at my new job in a Korean company that just moved into my town. What do I need to know so I don't ruin my chances the very first day?"

The following was extracted from a recent interview with me about how to thrive in a Korean company. 


Button_thrivein

"So, it's my first day at my new job in a Korean company that just moved into my town.  What do I need to know so I don't ruin my chances the very first day?"

"In many cases, managers of local Korean organizations try to adapt to the local culture. But frankly, the results of these efforts are limited and local employees often feel frustrated.

One key reason is the influence of head office, which restricts how much flexible the overseas office can be. For example, Korean companies are very top-down hierarchical, and established plans frequently change. Employees dispatched to run those overseas offices are sometimes switched out with surprisingly little advance warning. All this can be unsettling to a non-Korean employee without access to what’s really going on.

On your first day on the job, and probably for quite awhile after that, you’d be well-advised to watch and learn. You’re going to see some things you don’t understand; maybe a few aspects you don’t like and want to change. Trying to achieve change in the wrong way is likely to cause trouble; you should be looking for resources and a network to help you reach your goals within the existing structure.

Remember that help is only a few clicks away on Korea Business Central, where you can find information and reach out for support, training and advice."

Visit Korea Business Central for more information on working in a Korean company, including the full video of this interview.

 

Mainbanner
Learn more about the KBC Professional Certification Program to be more successful in your career in Korea.


An Interview About Issues Faced by Foreigners Working in Korea

I was recently contacted by a reporter from the Korea Herald with questions for a future article about the issues foreigners face working in Korea. Here's our Q&A:

1. What you would be the most serious work issue you have encountered personally, or has been highlighted by someone else that has come to you, in connection with working in Korea?

The most common issue is probably non-payment of wages by institutes to their teachers. It's likely not a frequent occurence, but it does happen and I get contacted from time-to-time by folks needing interpreting or translation for such issues.

I've been lucky in that I've faced very few serious work issues myself. The hardest time for me was when I first got started in my position at LG International many years ago; it was a challenge to figure out what the company was expecting of me. This is probably a common problem in positions filled by foreigners since those positions are generally ad hoc hirings done outside of an established system and processes, so sometimes the Korean company doesn't even know what they want from their foreign staff.

We've interviewed some executives working in Korean companies on Korea Business Central and it's interesting to see that even those in C-level positions faced similar confusion over expectations, as well as cultural and language differences. Here are links to the interviews:

2. Have you found that Korean hierarchy is a big challenge for foreigners working here? Is there room for give and take, or is assimilation (as far as possible) the only real option?

Foreigners exist outside the traditional Korean hierarchy so I'm not sure the hierarchy is all that challenging for us per se. Perhaps the most challenging part is just coming to terms with the fact that one is not going to move up the hierarchy in whatever Korean company one is in. Even if it were possible, how many non-Koreans would want to put in the effort and time (not to mention low salaries) to succeed long-term in a Korean company?

3. Are there services you feel are lacking for foreigners with work issues in Korea?

Not really. The Korean government seems to be making big efforts to help foreign job holders. I'm sure plenty of things happen anyway, but those are probably related to language, cultural and personal challenges, rather than a lack of services.

4. What would be the biggest mistake foreigners make when coming to work here and in their everyday work life?

Foreigners who want to work or are working in a Korean workplace must understand Korean business culture and without that background, they are sure to cause offense, look silly and get frustrated. On Korea Business Central we offer a Korea Business Culture Fundamentals Specialization in our KBC Professional Certification Program which is helping many foreigners get the skills to avoid mistakes and be successful both in the workplace and in their everyday work lives. Here's a link to the overview page for that - http://www.koreabusinesscentral.com/page/certification. Here is our current list of graduates too - http://www.koreabusinesscentral.com/page/kbc-professional-certification-program-graduates. I'd be glad to put you in touch with any of these graduates (as well a couple we've added in the last week that I haven't updated to the site yet).

5. Are there aspects of the visa system that need looking at so as not to put foreigners who are mistreated at work in a position where they have no choice but to put up with it or quit (and leave the country)?

I suppose it's not an accident that the government offers limited visa options. We get members on KBC asking about this all the time (for example:  http://www.koreabusinesscentral.com/forum/topics/running-an-online-business-from-korea-what-are-my-visa-options).

What is means is that those who make the investment by passing the points system (or put down roots by marrying a local) get many work advantages.

I'm sure if you look for them, you can find plenty of foreigners who think they've been mistreated in their workplaces, and some probably have. That's unfortunate, but I'm sure it's not on the government's agenda to change the visa situation just for them since doing so would encourage other behaviors they don't want (such as working on the side without a formal job).

6. What meaningful steps would improve the work environment for foreigners here and see Korean companies gain?

It's frustrating to see the failures of foreigners working in Korea. Now that companies like LG have gotten rid of all of their expat executives and with high-profile overseas investors leaving Songdo under a cloud of suspicion, it's certainly not portraying for Korea the image they'd like others to see.

This discussion on just how hard it is for Koreans to work and live in Korea got quite a bit of commentary from the Korea Business Central membership a couple years ago:

 


Thrive in a Korean Company: "What are some of the biggest Korean companies that are hiring non-Koreans, and for what?"

The following was extracted from a recent interview with me about how to thrive in a Korean company. 


Button_thrivein

"What are some of the biggest Korean companies that are hiring non-Koreans, and for what?"

"The Korean economy is dominated by a relatively small number of large business groups, commonly referred to as the chaebol. These include household names like Samsung, Hyundai and LG, as well as smaller business groups and independent companies.

I recently read that nearly a hundred Korean retailers have set up franchise networks overseas, and that is another way in which the Korean business presence is growing throughout the world.

When hiring local talent for overseas branch offices and subsidiaries, Korean companies are looking for people who can help them understand and be effective in the local markets.

On the other hand, there are opportunities to work in Korea for those same and other Korean companies and organizations if you have skills and resources that Korean companies can’t easily source in Korea."

Visit Korea Business Central for more information on working in a Korean company, including the full video of this interview. 

 

Mainbanner
Learn more about the KBC Professional Certification Program to be more successful in your career in Korea.


Answers to Questions about Social Gift-Giving and Chit-Chat with Koreans

I received the following questions from a visitor to my website recently. 

"My husband works for a Korean company. We will be accompanying the CEO and his wife (both Korean) to a weekend event; they are relatively new to the USA and this is my first time meeting either of them.

"Would it be "politically correct" for me to give either of them a small gift? Just the wife? Neither?

"In this situation, what would be considered an appropriate gift? Since I think the number seven is considered lucky, perhaps seven small candles or a box of seven nice chocolate?

"And what topics of conversation (should be interesting since I speak no Korean and they speak minimal English) are especially safe? Children/family? Should I bring pictures?"

Here's how I ended up replying to the person who sent the above inquiry:

"Yes, it would be  appropriate for you to give the wife a gift in this situation. You don’t need to get hung up on the number; but chocolates are fine. Something along the lines of clothing and fashion is likely to be better. I'd stay away from any food items that aren't universally enjoyed (such as chocolates) since you'd be surprised what kinds of American foods some Koreans don't care for. (BTW, it isn't exactly a perfect match with your situation but here's a link to my Top Ten Gifts to Give in Korea to Make a Great Impression.)

"In one of the modules, the KBC Business Professional Certification mentions a number of topics you could bring up. Photos are fine, but perhaps don’t overdo it. Children and family are always a good topic and I’m sure they’d like opportunities to tell you about life in Korea and how they're faring in the US, particularly if they’re feeling homesick. Finding out what kinds of challenges the wife is facing in her adjustment to life in the US would be a great opportunity to share suggestions and answer some of her nagging questions."


Korea Business Advisor (Seoul Magazine) - Supplement to the Article "Question: What is a Korean FELO?"

5d1937b8-c10c-45c5-87cf-e8e5b58a13e8
My latest column for Seoul Magazine's April 2012 issue discussed the FELO phenomenon. Here are some additional insights by Dr. Frithjof Arp of FELOResearch.info:

The acronym assigned by researchers to that specific sub-set of non-Koreans in Korea is Foreign Executives in Local Organizations (FELOs). In contrast to the large number of classic expatriate managers posted to Korea by foreign multinationals, the rare breed of FELOs work in the headquarters of Korean companies. That is, they have not been hired for overseas subsidiaries of Korean companies but for top management positions in Korea. Other classifications used by academia include SIEs (self-initiated expatriates) to describe the many foreigners who, for example, teach English in foreign countries or work as foreign professors. In addition, there are a large number of migrant laborers from elsewhere in Asia who work in Korean factories.

Some foreign executives recently hired by Korean companies come from significant cultural distance. Learning more about the FELO phenomenon is a key step in understanding the crucial roles FELOs can play in helping Korea continue its economic miracle. For cross-cultural management researchers, successful long-term FELO cases are of particular interest as they help explain how cultural distance in workplaces can be bridged.

Part of the FELO phenomenon is that these foreign executives make decisions and supervise Korean colleagues. At the same time, they have to report to Korean shareholders, chairpersons and owner-families. They have to demonstrate their loyalty to Korean interests, whereas classic expatriates represent the interests of foreign headquartered companies. Hence, FELOs are typically exposed to significant scrutiny from Korean colleagues, shareholders and the public. In contrast, foreign employees working for Korean companies in overseas branch offices or subsidiaries work within their home-country environment, do not usually manage and supervise Koreans, and are not as exposed to Korean domestic scrutiny as FELOs are. FELOs in Korea have to bridge the East-West cultural divide on a daily basis.

While Koreans with non-Korean passports who return to Korea are not perceived as outsiders for very long, FELOs have to work hard on gaining some level of insider status. Research has shown that some of them do, and that their unique ‘in/out group’-status can be leveraged to the advantage of the companies that they work for. Four different types of FELOs with distinct career-paths and socio-biographical backgrounds have been found, and three different types of local organisations appointing them. Studying the various business strategies underlying FELO appointments helps explain which combinations become successful and which others are likely to fail. Research of FELO cases across Asia identifies why these foreign executives are appointed and what they contribute to their local employers.

For further research, please refer to the following links and information:


Korea Business Advisor (Seoul Magazine) - Supplement to the Article "Two Things to Remember About Korean Job Titles"

2011-10-17 오후 9-21-58
My latest column for Seoul Magazine's September issue discussed job titles in Korea and how the traditional organizational hierarchy is alive and well in Korean companies. To go deeper into this topic, visit the links below.

 

** CLICK HERE to read he full article on Korea Business Central.


A Recap of Didier Chenneveau's Exclusive Interview on Korea Business Central - "Global Expertise Within the Korean Business Framework at LG Electronics"

4-30-2011 7-50-38 PMFrom 2008 until the end of 2010, LG Electronics did what’s never been done before in Korean business. The company brought in five foreign executives to help bring the company up to international standards in a variety of areas. The experiment is over though; all the non-Korean executives have moved on, and LG Electronics is back in the hands of Koreans only, leaving a lot of unanswered questions about how prepared Korean multinationals are to become truly multinational.

Didier Chenneveau was one of the foreign executives and he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Supply Chain Officer for over two years. His insights from the experience are valuable for anyone interested in doing business in Korea, because they explore the limits of Korean business culture, the ways for Korea to improve and implications for others in making a success of their positions within Korean corporate business.

Click here to listen to the interview, download the .mp3, subscribe in iTunes, read the transcript and or discuss this interview and this topic with other members of Korea Business Central visit the English-language discussion link.

Click here for the full list of interviews in the 2011 Korea Business Interview Series, or here for the 2011 interviews.

Main Points of the Interview

Topic #1 - Background to Joining LG Electronics

  • Didier started at Caterpillar in Switzerland for three years and then moved to HP for about 17 years, both in Europe and the US.
  • He wanted to work in Asia and the vision of LG Electronics' new CEO Young Nam in 2008 to globalize the organization was inspiring enough for Didier to join as Chief Supply Chain Officer. Around that time, other foreign executives took C-level positions in marketing, procurement, strategy and HR.

Topic #2 - Getting Started at LG Electronics

  • LG's intention by bringing in foreign executives was to improve the Korean model by making the company management reflect the global nature of LG's business. The need to do this is well illustrated by the fact that almost no Korean executives have moved on from Korean companies to successfully run foreign corporations.
  • Didier's primary role was to aggregate the supply chain function across the organization, which included creating a vision for the function, bringing in best practices from outside, promoting more outsourcing, setting up KPIs and building an IT system to support it.
  • The CEOs globalization vision was good and public statements by the company about it were sincere and correct. There was push-back within the organization though from those who didn't understand or who felt threatened by the changes.

Topic #3 - Supply Chain Management from a Korean Perspective

  • Korean company supply chains are similar to a Japanese model. Those of large Korean conglomerates are generally run through an internal logistics company. Supply chain management operates through an end-to-end approach rather than being open and collaborative with other partners.
  • The biggest achievement Didier accomplished was around inventory management and supply/demand matching, as well as outsourcing.
  • The lack of IT systems was a major non-cultural issue for improving supply chain management since information technology wasn't a strategic priority in the company. 
  • In regard to smartphones, Korean companies have tended to focus too much on manufacturing, where little value is added. Instead, outsourcing these portions to others and focusing on product development would be more advantageous. LG smartphones have succeeded in the area of design, and leadership can be regained by focusing on innovation, understanding customer needs and creating better partnerships.
  • LG's position on Garner Group's index of the world's best supply chains went from 65 in 2007 to 27 in 2010, a notable outside confirmation of Didier's success in his position.

Topic #4 - Cultural Challenges of Working in the Korean Workplace

  • LG is still a very hierarchical organization with huge respect for authority. The foreign executives had trouble getting into that culture. Evening social drinking was not easy to go along with on a continuous basis.
  • Language was also a big barrier. Even with interpretation, there's a lag in the conversation, and it's difficult to pick up all the nuances. Staff meetings started out in English, but this stopped early and went back to Korean. Efforts to introduce English into the workplace were not as robust as was widely publicized outside the company.
  • The concept of an open door policy was not generally accepted even though Didier worked hard to get his subordinates to follow it.
  • Relationships with peers were professional, but not warm, in part for language reasons and the unwillingness of foreign executives to engage in the after-hours drinking. The foreign executives were respected for their knowledge and expertise but Korea still remains a very close, structured and hierarchical culture.
  • Consensus in Korea often felt like a one-way thing. To achieve results, the foreigners had to build consensus with the Koreans, but they didn't always feel that the Koreans made the same effort to bring the foreign team into the consensus process for Korean-promoted initiatives.
  • Didier's was able to get his direct approach to discussion and decision-making across to his staff. The first time he asked "What do YOU think?", they were surprised. The reaction was, "You're the bosss. You tell me what I'm thinking. You tell me what to do." With time though, they grasped it, understood it and achieved good results.

Topic #4 - The Departure of the Foreign CEOs

  • When word got out at the end of 2010 that the foreign executives were all leaving, many outside the organization were surprised. The simple answer for the changes is that a new CEO came in and decided to take a new direction. In fact, the new CEO never even met the foreign executives for the last three months of their contracts, even though they were still on the payroll.
  • Overall, Didier's time at LG was very positive for him. If he had to do it over, he'd want to have been sure that the CEO had a long enough mandate to achieve his changes. The rotation of executives in Korean companies every three to four years is institutionalized and puzzling.
  • Korean companies need to look at the markets they serve and ensure they have people in positions of responsibility who are able to understand those markets. This is what CEO Young Nam understood.

Topic #5 - Wrapping Up

  • Living in Seoul as a foreigner is OK, but not great. It's a hard place to speak English, in spite of the efforts Koreans make to learn English. It's hard to make local friends. There are lots of great restaurant and museums. Spring and fall are beautiful. The skiing is nice.
  • Asia is where exciting things are happening in the world in terms of supply chain management, thus Didier is now running and expanding CEVA's operations in Asia.
  • New graduates looking to excel in Asia should make sure to work in companies from more than one country.
  • Korean companies are great at manufacturing, but there's still the question of innovation and whether Koreans can excel in the businesses of the future. 

What Are the Real Benefits to Learning Korean in Korea?

A member on Korea Business Central seems to be losing enthusiasm for studying Korean and posted a discussion question this week asking what he's really going to get out of the effort if he just wants to work in Korea. Seeing as how Koreans in business generally want to learn English and often don't place value on the efforts of foreigners to learn Korean, it's not hard to understand this KBC member's doubts. I think it takes a deeper perspective to fully appreciate the situation; here's how I replied to him:

"This is a very interesting question because it seems like the answer should be obvious, but as you pointed out, it's not.

Nobody is going to hire you in Korea simply because you speak Korean well. Why would they? And having mediocre Korean in the workplace is no better than no Korean at all, in most situations. In general, I've found that Koreans trying to learn English are less than thrilled to meet Korean-speaking foreigners, unless the foreigner's Korean is significantly better than their own English. And I definitely agree that getting from intermediate to advanced is going to take a whole lot longer than it took to get from beginner to intermediate.

But I don't think this is the whole story. If you speak Korean, then you're not left getting only the information Koreans choose to share with you; you've got direct access to the "primary sources". This is extremely important in countless subtle ways. And as David Yeo shared above, you can build stronger bonds with those around you both through the language and through cultural understanding (though I don't necessarily agree that Korean is better suited to emotional expression than English; both languages seem equally robust in this regard).

I think you also earn respect from Koreans you work with if you prove your mettle through Korean skills, and this can be a huge asset in business. Don't underestimate the value here. Foreigners who've been in Korean for decades but haven't learned Korean properly are kidding themselves if they think the Koreans around them don't look down on them, at least in limited ways, and this is in spite of what Koreans will tell them. Ironically, I find that foreigners who've learned Korean tend to be more understanding of Korean shortcomings (especially lack of English skills) than those who haven't learned Korean.

If you've got language skills in a business setting, it means you're closer to functioning as an equal and not as someone who's there as an English chat buddy and/or who continuously needs to be explained to. If you see yourself staying and working in Korea over the long-term, I encourage you to redouble your language learning efforts and to never be satisfied with your current ability level."
 

Click here to read the rest of the discussion, including insightful comments by other Korea Business Central members.


A Recap of Dr. Linda Myers' Exclusive Interview on Korea Business Central - "Working at the Top in SK Group: An Insider's Story"

Author_lm Dr. Linda Myers was "inpatriated" to Seoul to raise global mindsets, lead global talent management, develop global policies and practices, and help accelerate globalization of the SK Group. She previously earned her masters and doctoral degrees from Harvard University.

To listen to the interview, download the .mp3, subscribe in iTunes, read the transcript and or discuss this interview and this topic with other members of Korea Business Central visit the English-language discussion link (http://www.koreabusinesscentral.com/forum/topics/korea-business-central-394) or Korean-language discussion link (http://www.koreabusinesscentral.com/forum/topics/hankug-bijeuniseu-nginteobyu). 

The full list of interviews in the Korea Business Interview Series is maintained here: http://www.koreabusinesscentral.com/page/interviews-2

Main Points of the Interview

Topic #1 - Dr. Myers' Background Leading To Her Position at SK Group

  • Factors leading to her global career: 1) Oldest child of deaf parents, 2) Mother's family immigrated to US during World War II, 3) Early international experiences
  • First contacted by a Korean executive recruiter in July 2007 for position in a Korean company. However, he was not able to refer Dr. Myers to anyone who had worked in South Korea before. This opportunity to be a trailblazer was an attractive challenge and Dr. Myers headed to Korea shortly thereafter without a clear job description, orientation or other preparation.

Topic #2 - Early Experiences in SK Group

  • Figuring out the corporate structure of SK Group was an early challenge, leading to a determination that others Dr. Myers came in professional contact with not be confused as she had been. She made sure every presentation about SK that she gave include an explanation that SK Group is the holding company owned by the Chey family and begun in 1953 which today has about 35,000 employees in over a dozen subsidiaries, all of which operate under instructions from the holding company, which also owns the most valuable business assets.
  • One of the most unsettling aspects of the job was realizing how unprepared SK was for helping a foreigner transition into a new post, and especially the Group's inexperience with global human resources concepts and language issues.
  • Learning about the company was a slow painful process, as Dr. Myers' questions were often perceived as critical. Fortunately, she was able to locate her own resources in the Seoul business community, which helped the adjustment immensely.
  • The three major factors governing the cultural and gender challenges Dr. Myers faced include 1) that Koreans adhere to the traditional collectivist Confusion cultural traits of harmony, hierarchy, in-group/out-group, school ties, favoritism, status and rank, 2) that her base of support was very powerful (at least at the beginning) because her position had been created by Chairman Chey himself and 3) that this base of support changed rapidly when the senior vice president was moved to a different position.
  • Dr. Myer's early achievements included being SK's best public relations effort through interviews, serving on commissions and travelling the world giving presentations to global MBA programs. Dr. Myers also championed a career website for the SK Group.

Topic #3 - Later Experiences in SK Group

  • The annual evaluation and reassignment of Korean executives between November and December of each year leads to a lot of uncertainty and upheaval. In Dr. Myers' case, the reassignment of the Senior Vice President of Corporate Culture to a different operating company changed the dynamics of Dr. Myers' position dramatically as she lost her sponsor and new personnel were less interested in her role.

Topic #3 - Lessons Learned During the Experience

  • Korean corporate talk about globalization leads Dr. Myers to react with skepticism, having lived and head stories of life as a foreigner in a Korean company, as well as cautious optimism, seeing the success that LG Electronics is having. [Note: Even LG Electronics' experience is called into doubt with the very recent departure of the expat team there.]
  • The apparent lip-service that Korean firms pay to globalization may be due to the fact that Koreans are still pretty isolated socially and adhere to Confucian traditions and customs. However, with the hosting of the G20 in 2010 and other achievements, perhaps this is a critical moment in Korean business history where Korea begins to open itself up in a bigger way.
  • For firms like SK to truly embrace globalization and change, the laws under which foreign talent is brought in must be clarified so that it's not as easy for contracted employees to be let go. Many foreign employees don't realize that they are expected to stay just two years. This is wasteful for the Korean company too, to take such short-term views. Korean firms needs to also figure out what they expect from foreign employees before bringing them over, and they need to provide the foreign talent with clear and measurable objectives for change that are supported and made accountable at the highest ranks of the organization. This includes providing each foreigner with a mentor and clearly established career path.
  • To properly compete on the world stage, Korean companies need to provide a level playing field with the rest of the world and remove the barriers they've put up to outsiders.
  • As for SK Group, a stronger customer focus and understanding of the distribution system in the US would have helped with recent businesses, and going forward, the Group needs to market its businesses in Asia, as well as in E. Europe, for betting understanding its customers and meeting their needs. This applies to China, too.
  • The top three issues Korean companies must deal with for globalization include 1) improving marketing so that Korean companies get the credit they deserve, 2) strengthening the knowledge sharing system across the company and 3) finding ways to reward employees for taking the initiative.

Topic #4 - Going Forward

  • Dr. Myers is currently writing an article about her time and experiences in Korea, scheduled for publication in January 2011. She is also preparing a case study geared toward MBAs with interest in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • In closing, Dr. Myers expressed her very deepest thanks and appreciation to all the Koreans who befriended her and taught her the many important lessons she learned during her years in Seoul.